Have you at any point swiped on a lipstick or applied a metallic eyeshadow, just to end up with a swollen lips or irritated eyes? Cosmetics are an essential part of of our day to day life. The average adult uses somewhere around 7 distinctive healthy skin care products every day, so it’s not astonishing that reactions to these products are very common. Beauty care products are substances applied to the surface of the skin, hair, or nails intended to briefly change one’s appearance. Eye cosmetics, long-wear lip stains, antiperspirants, lotions and nail shines are the most widely recognized offenders. Some hair colors and sunscreens may also cause irritation and inflammation. Beautifying agents are usually blend of scents, emulsifiers, sunscreens, shades, metals, pitches, and additives, as well as an assortment of inert materials. Even if a ingredient is safe, your body may distinguish it as an unsafe remote substance and trigger a hypersensitive response. The true commonness of cosmetic products is unknown because affected people may simply quit using the culpable item rather than gripe about it to an expert. Beauty care products may bother the skin directly (as far the most common type of reaction) or initiate a immune-mediated allergic reaction. Normally aggravation would happen the first time when an individual applies a cosmetic, instead of a hypersensitive response that would require repeated exposures. For cosmetic allergies, the reaction usually takes more than 24 hours to appear. So the sparkle eyeshadow you used on saturday night could be the reason of the monday’s morning irritation. In the first exposure, it usually takes a little while to mount. If it’s the second time, the response could happen very quickly. You may build up a hypersensitivity to new product or one you’ve used for a considerable length of time without any issues. Usually, the body’s immune system becomes hypersensitive to the chemicals over time. The more you utilize the cosmetics, the more your immune framework gets sensitized to it and doesn’t like it any longer and cause a strong allergic reaction. You could be using a similar lipstick for a long time with no issue and may have a hypersensitive response to it out of the blue.
A portion of the additives most generally found in makeup include:
· Parabens – utilized in numerous facial beautifying agents and healthy skin products.
· Formaldehyde – found in shampoos
· Imidazolidinyl urea – said to be less allergenic than other additives
· Quaternium-15 – another generally utilized additive found in facial makeup and healthy skin care products.
· Isothiazolinone and, particularly, methylisothiazolinone
There are couple of constituents in the beautifying agents which can prompt sensitivities. The ingredients include:
Tea Tree Oil is progressively being utilized in different beauty care products (cleansers, antiperspirants, toothpaste) and unfavorably susceptible contact dermatitis is being discovered identified with this product all through the world. The leaves of the tea tree contain a fundamental oil, which contains turpentines,which is the most well-known allergen causing unfavorably susceptible contact dermatitis from tea tree oil.
Henna as a characteristic hair color has turned out to be progressively well known. Henna additionally causes unfavorably susceptible contact dermatitis in both beautician and their customers. Most cases had sniffling, runny nose, and shortness of breath rather than skin reactions because it is felt that individuals become sensitized by inhalation of henna powder dispersed in the air.
Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) Hair color: This is the most critical color utilized for perpetual (oxidation) hair coloring and it can cause contact dermatitis. Perpetual hair colors are more sensitizing contrasted with other sorts of hair dye. In most cases, the reaction to the color is itching of the scalp and some redness, yet nothing more. In more serious cases, the hair color may trigger scaly skin and pain. The distribution of the affected skin can vary and may not match the exact area to which the hair color was applied. There can be swelling around the eyes and flaky skin on the ears, face and neck. Sensitizing to hair color may develop gradually with repeated exposure. New subsidiaries of PPD have a lower danger of causing the hypersensitivity.
Lanoline or Wools alcohal : It is the commonest cosmetic allergen causing contact dermatitis. It is a natural material acquired from the sebum of sheep. It is recuperated from raw wool by solvent extraction. It is utilized in beautifying agents because of its emollient, saturating, and emulsifying properties. There are a few allergens present in lanoline and in some cases,lanoline-sensitive patients can tolerate one lanoline preparation yet not another. Beauty care products containing lanoline include: lotions, hand creams,sunscreens, lipsticks, cosmetics remover, eye cosmetics, foundations, baby oils ,diaper salves and hair splash.
Problems related with beautifiers and healthy skin products are:
Contact urticaria and Anaphylaxis: Contact urticaria reactions show up within minutes to around 1 hour after exposure of the urticariant (allergen) to the skin. The patient may complains of a local burning sensation, shivering, or tingling. Swelling and redness might be seen (wheal and flare). Rash usually dissolves itself within 24 hours of onset. Hypersensitivity includes trouble breathing, nausea, spewing, rash with swelling .It is uncommon, however can be lethal.
Contact dermatitis is an inflammation that results from the interaction of skin and an outside substance (even water) . It is a modified condition of skin reactivity actuated by exposure to an external agent. For most of the individuals, these substances are safe. In all cases, the sores of contact dermatitis are principally bound to the site of contact. It can look – and itch – particularly like eczema. It generally shows as a rash of tiny blisters, inflamed and red skin, sometimes dry, or sometimes moist and oozing. It is produced through one of two major pathways: irritant or allergic.
Irritant contact dermatitis prevails, accounting for 80 percent of all instances of contact dermatitis. ICD is a non-immunologic skin response that does not include immune system sensitization (previous exposure to the allergen). Anyone can suffer from this allergic reaction depending upon “irritancy” of the chemical, the term of contact and individual vulnerability. Atopics (who perpetually have dry skin) are more prone to irritant dermatitis. Water is one of the most widely recognized irritants; therefore atopics who do a lot of wet work frequently suffers from irritant hand dermatitis. Another reason atopics get irritant dermatitis is that the skin gets harmed from constant scratching, permitting the other harmless chemicals in beautifying agents to enter the skin. The most common skin irritants incorporate acids, alkalies, cleansers, and solvents that damage the barrier function of the skin. For strong irritants, a response may occur within minutes or hours of exposure. For weaker irritants, it might take days or weeks of continued exposure before symptoms show up. Basic healthy skin products causing skin irritation include shower cleansers, make-up removers, shampoos, antiperspirants, and permanent hair-waving solutions. Irritant contact dermatitis is a risk factor for hypersensitive contact dermatitis, as the penetration of contact allergens is enhanced when the skin barrier function is disturbed.
On the other hand, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD),is an immunologic skin response that occurs in a genetically predisposed person. The unfavorably susceptible reaction happens just when a person’s immune system is sensitized to an allergen. The more contact the individual has with an allergen , the greater is the risk of sensitization. In sensitized people, allergic contact dermatitis appears or is exacerbated 24 to 96 hours after contact with the causative allergen. ACD is typically accompanied by redness, swelling, intense tingling and hive-like breakouts. The edges of the sores are well demarcated, but unlike irritant dermatitis it may propagate beyond the site of contact. This reaction is called as delayed hypersensitivity reaction, since the rash usually develops after more than 12 hours of contact with an allergen. The number of chemicals known to be capable for causing ACD is said to be close to 3000 and constantly increasing.
Photocontact dermatitis: It is the term used to depict skin malady caused by the interaction of UV radiation and an exogenously (externally) acquired chemical agent, which might be either a medication or food taken orally, or a substance applied to the skin. Rash is caused by the interaction of sunlight with an ingredient in the cosmetic.
Diagnosis of skin rashes caused by cosmetics:
Contact Urticaria is diagnosed by applying the product to the skin for 15-20 minutes and watching the skin for redness, swelling and tingling or doing a skin prick test (applying the presumed allergen/s to the lower arm and pricking the skin with a needle and waiting for 15 minutes for a knock like a mosquito bump at the site of the prick).
Contact Dermatitis is analyzed by completing a patch test. This is not quite the same as skin prick testing. It gives a positive reaction in around 48 hours.Chemicals are taped to the back in small patches.The patches remain set up for 48 hours. You can’t shower or do any work or exercise that will wet or release the patches. Following two days, the patches are removed and reading is done. The patch sites are marked and you may be asked to return for a final reading on some another day.
What should you do to avoid cosmetic allergy? If you have a cosmetic allergy, the most ideal approach to prevent any problem is to avoid all the products that contain the allergen you are sensitive to. Some steps you can take to reduce cosmetic allergy reactions include:
· Read the list of ingredients on all the cosmetic products and know the names of the allergens you have to keep away from.
· When trying out a new product, do a mini patch test by placing a sample of the product on your internal wrist or elbow and wait for at least 24 hours to check whether a reaction occurs.
· Choose products that don’t have a long list of ingredients to limit the potential allergens.
· Apply perfume to your garments rather than your skin, and enable the fragrance to dry before putting on the garments.
Cosmetic hypersensitivity should clear rapidly once the irritating allergen is removed. Over-the-counter creams and treatments containing mild topical steroids, for example, hydrocortisone 0.5– 2.5%, might be used to help control tingling, swelling, and redness. Emollients, for example, cetomacrogol cream can be used to soothe and relieve the dryness.